Physics Letters B

# Physics Letters B and Nuclear Physics B, Historical Articles

In the past forty years, we have witnessed groundbreaking discoveries in fundamental physics which have revolutionized and challenged our understanding of the universe from smallest to largest distance scales. Advances in collider physics led to the discoveries of new fundamental particles which are the building blocks of the Standard Model of the electro-weak and strong forces of nature, and they culminated with the discovery of the Higgs particle. Similar advances in the field of astrophysics led to revolutionary discoveries on cosmic scales, such as the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, dark energy and gravitational waves. Profound advances in theoretical physics have shed light on foundations of quantum gravity and quantum field theory. These discoveries include advances in string theory, a prime candidate for the unification of quantum gravity with other forces of nature, and the duality between quantum field theory and gravity. While originating in theoretical high energy physics, these discoveries have also resulted in novel and unexpected ties to other fields of physics and mathematics.

The discoveries in fundamental physics are some of the most important achievements of modern science and they constitute an intellectual legacy for future generations. It is therefore a great pleasure to introduce a Special Issue of articles which made seminal contributions to the advances in fundamental physics. This Special Issue represents a selection of such highly influential articles, published in *Physics Letters B* and *Nuclear Physics B* in the seventies, eighties and nineties of the previous century. In the following, I will highlight achievements of some of them and emphasize their interconnected nature.

Two articles "Evidence for Z0 ---> e+ e- at the CERN anti-p p Collider,’’ by the UA2 Collaboration (P. Bagnaia et al.) and "Experimental Observation of Lepton Pairs of Invariant Mass Around 95-GeV/c**2 at the CERN SPS Collider,’’ by the UA1 Collaboration (G. Arnison et al.) announced the independent discovery of the Z^{0} boson, a neutral gauge boson which, together with the discovery of W^{+} and W^{-} charged gauge bosons, mediate the forces of the electro-weak theory. This discovery confirmed the precise nature and the symmetry breaking pattern of the electro-weak interactions. Thirty years later the discovery of the Higgs particle, which is responsible for the symmetry breaking of the electro-weak forces, added the last missing block of the Standard Model.

The article "Feynman diagrams for the Yang-Mills field,’’ by L. D. Faddeev and V. N. Popov, is a seminal paper that developed the quantization and perturbation theory of gauge field theories, on which the Standard Model of particle physics is based. The techniques developed in this paper provided a foundation for quantum studies of gauge field theories, and led to numerous new advances. These include the introduction of supersymmetry in the article "Supergauge transformations in four dimensions’’ by J. Wess and B. Zumino, a development non-perturbative conditions for consistent confining gauge theories in the article "Topology of the gauge condition and new confinement phases in non-abelian gauge theories” by G. t’Hooft, and a seminal article "Electric-magnetic duality, monopole condensation, and confinement in N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory’’ by N. Seiberg and E. Witten, that opened the door for quantitative non-perturbative studies of supersymmetric gauge theories. Furthermore, the article "Asymptotic freedom in parton language’’ by G. Altarelli and G. Parisi, applied the quantum field theory techniques to quantum chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions, in order to derive the evolution equation of probability distributions of quarks and gluons, when the energy scale energy varies.

In the article "A new inflationary universe scenario: A possible solution of the horizon, flatness, homogeneity, isotropy and primordial monopole problems’’, A. D. Linde proposed a new inflationary mechanism which, due to the slow evolution from false to true vacuum, successfully addresses the origin of the homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe. In a related article "Chaotic Inflation’’, A. D. Linde provided a detailed description of an alternative model of inflation which has become known as the Chaotic Inflation theory or eternal inflation.

The article "Quantum geometry of bosonic strings’’, by A.M. Polyakov, formulated a quantization and perturbation theory of interacting bosonic strings, which forms a foundation for quantum calculations in string theory. In the article "Anomaly cancellations in supersymmetric D = 10 gauge theory and superstring theory’’, by M. B. Green and J. H. Schwarz, it was shown that the quantum theory of superstrings is free of quantum inconsistencies in ten space-time dimensions. Some of this work was based on an earlier article "Gravitational anomalies’’, by L. Alvarez-Gaumé and E. Witten, which showed that quantum gravitational inconsistencies are absent in certain ten-dimensional supergravity theories. These foundational papers opened the door for extensive studies of string theory as a prime candidate of unification of quantum gravity theory with other forces of nature.

Looking at the importance and impact of these foundational papers, it is amazing that just in the past forty years or so we have made such tremendous strides in our understating of the origin of fundamental forces of nature. It is satisfying that a collection of papers published in this Special Issue have made such highly influential contributions to this tremendous scientific progress.

Mirjam Cvetic

Editor of *Physics Letters B*

**Article details:**

Linde, A.D., "A new inflationary universe scenario: A possible solution of the horizon, flatness, homogeneity, isotropy and primordial monopole problems" Physics Letters B (1982)

Starobinsky, A.A., "A new type of isotropic cosmological models without singularity" Physics Letters B (1980)

Linde, A.D., "Chaotic inflation" Physics Letters B (1983)

Polyakov, A.M., "Quantum geometry of bosonic strings" Physics Letters B (1981)

Belavin, A.A., Polyakov, A.M., Schwartz, A.S., Tyupkin, Yu.S., "Pseudoparticle solutions of the Yang-Mills equations" Physics Letters B (1975)

Green, M.B., Schwarz, J.H., "Anomaly cancellations in supersymmetric D = 10 gauge theory and superstring theory" Physics Letters B (1984)

Wess, J., Zumino, B., "Consequences of anomalous ward identities" Physics Letters B (1971)

Kuzmin, V.A., Rubakov, V.A., Shaposhnikov, M.E., "On anomalous electroweak baryon-number non-conservation in the early universe" Physics Letters B (1985)

Starobinsky, A.A., "Dynamics of phase transition in the new inflationary universe scenario and generation of perturbations" Physics Letters B (1982)

Faddeev, L.D., Popov, V.N., "Feynman diagrams for the Yang-Mills field" Physics Letters B (1967)

Callan Jr., C.G., Dashen, R.F., Gross, D.J., "The structure of the gauge theory vacuum" Physics Letters B (1976)

Kaplan, D.B., "A method for simulating chiral fermions on the lattice" Physics Letters B (1992)

Wess, J., Zumino, B., "A lagrangian model invariant under supergauge transformations" Physics Letters B (1974)

Fukugita, M., Yanagida, T., "Barygenesis without grand unification" Physics Letters B (1986)

UA2 Collaboration (P. Bagnaia et al.), "Evidence for Z0 ---> e+ e- at the CERN anti-p p Collider" Physics Letters B (1983)

ARGUS Collaboration (H. Albrecht et al), "Observation of B0 - anti-B0 Mixing" Physics Letters B (1987)

NA31 Collaboration (H. Burkhardt et al.), "First Evidence for Direct CP Violation" Physics Letters B (1988)

Gargamelle Neutrino Collaboration (F.J. Hasert et al), "Observation of Neutrino Like Interactions Without Muon Or Electron in the Gargamelle Neutrino Experiment" Physics Letters B (1973)

UA1 Collaboration (G. Arnison et al.), "Experimental Observation of Lepton Pairs of Invariant Mass Around 95-GeV/c**2 at the CERN SPS Collider" Physics Letters B (1983)

Altarelli, G., Parisi, G., "Asymptotic freedom in parton language" Nuclear Physics B (1977)

Belavin, A.A., Polyakov, A.M., Zamolodchikov, A.B., "Infinite conformal symmetry in two-dimensional quantum field theory" Nuclear Physics B (1984)

Witten, E., "Dynamical breaking of supersymmetry" Nuclear Physics B (1981)

Hooft, G.'t., "A planar diagram theory for strong interactions" Nuclear Physics B (1974)

Wess, J., Zumino, B., "Supergauge transformations in four dimensions" Nuclear Physics B (1974)

Seiberg, N., Witten, E., "Electric-magnetic duality, monopole condensation, and confinement in N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory" Nuclear Physics B (1994)

Hooft, G.'t., "Magnetic monopoles in unified gauge theories" Nuclear Physics B (1974)

't Hooft, G., "A two-dimensional model for mesons" Nuclear Physics B (1974)

Passarino, G., Veltman, M., "One-loop corrections for e+e-annihilation into μ+μ-in the Weinberg model" Nuclear Physics B (1979)

Dimopoulos, S., Georgi, H., "Softly broken supersymmetry and SU(5)" Nuclear Physics B (1981)

Manohar, A., Georgi, H., "Chiral quarks and the non-relativistic quark model" Nuclear Physics B (1984)

Gunion, J.F., Haber, H.E., "Higgs bosons in supersymmetric models (I)" Nuclear Physics B (1986)

Wetterich, C., "Cosmology and the fate of dilatation symmetry" Nuclear Physics B (1988)

Moore, G., Read, N., "Nonabelions in the fractional quantum hall effect" Nuclear Physics B (1991)

Gribov, V.N., "Quantization of non-Abelian gauge theories" Nuclear Physics B (1978)

Froggatt, C.D., Nielsen, H.B., "Hierarchy of quark masses, cabibbo angles and CP violation" Nuclear Physics B (1979)

Hooft, G.'t., "Topology of the gauge condition and new confinement phases in non-abelian gauge theories" Nuclear Physics B (1981)

Knizhnik, V.G., Zamolodchikov, A.B., "Current algebra and Wess-Zumino model in two dimensions" Nuclear Physics B (1984)

Alvarez-Gaumé, L., Witten, E., "Gravitational anomalies" Nuclear Physics B (1984)